The Maritime Research Institute Netherlands (MARIN) has been dedicated to furthering maritime understanding and knowledge since 1932. Today, MARIN is an internationally recognised authority on ship and offshore hydrodynamics, involved in frontier breaking research programmes for governments, the maritime and offshore industry, and navies. MARIN provides testing services and simulation and training consultancy.
MARIN has a cluster of the largest dedicated maritime research facilities in the world, comprising an enviable array of basins, simulation tools, measurement equipment and production tools. But most importantly, MARIN has motivated people that bring it all together. This highly trained team is dedicated to advance hydrodynamic know-how and applying it for the benefit of the maritime industry as a whole. A complete information technology infrastructure is in place for the support of research, production, business processes and knowledge management.
Seakeeping & Manoeuvring Basin
Verifying performance and safety requires accurate representation of a ship and its ride control elements in relevant wave conditions. Our Seakeeping and Manoeuvring Basin (170 x 40 m) is designed for making arbitrary (high-speed) manoeuvres in realistic waves from arbitrary directions. The free-sailing or captive tests provide insight into the seakeeping and manoeuvring characteristics.
Carriage The carriage with a maximum speed of 6 m/s runs over the total length of the tank. It consists of a mainframe, spanning the full width of the basin, and a sub frame with a max. speed of 4 m/s along the mainframe. The carriage can follow all movements of the model in the horizontal plane. With an extra installed turntable, the system has a rotating arm capability.
Waves & wind At two adjacent sides of the basin, segmented wave generators consisting of hinged flaps are installed. Each flap is controlled separately by a driving motor and has a width of 60 cm. The capacity of the wave generator is up to a significant wave height of 0.45 m at a peak period of 2 seconds. Opposite the wave generator, passive sinkable wave absorbers are installed. The wave generator system is equipped with an active wave reflection compensation feature and higher order wave synthesis techniques. Wind can be simulated by an adjustable 10 m wide platform with electrical fans.
Motion Control and Dynamic Tracking Free running tests are performed such that the model follows an arbitrary pre-defined track (straight or curved) through the basin. The carriage follows the model during this task. Deviations from the pre-defined track are minimised through a dynamic positioning feedback loop which controls the propulsion units, additional thrusters and steering within a particular control scenario. Motion control is realised by means of a feedback loop which activates related stabilisation systems (fins, foils, rudders, etc).
Model size range Models tested in the Seakeeping & Manoeuvring Basin vary from moving objects with a model length of 2 - 8 m, moored objects up to 10 m and floating structures of any kind, size depending on water depth and wave conditions.
Seakeeping tests in waves and wind from arbitrary direction
Resistance and self propulsion tests in calm water and waves
Oscillation (PMM) and rotating arm tests in calm water and waves with a restrained model to determine hydrodynamic coefficients
Captive or free sailing manoeuvring tests in calm water and waves
Installation and sea transport tests of offshore constructions
Tests on moored or fixed objects to determine motions and loads due to waves and wind
The Offshore Basin (10.2 m deep) is a realistic environment for testing offshore models. Its current generation system allows different vertical current profiles. Combined wind, waves and swell are generated using wave generators on both sides of the basin and a movable windbed. A movable floor allows testing from shallow to deep water, while a 30 m deep pit is available for ultra deep water testing.
Carriage The carriage enables efficient testing and monitoring of offshore tests. The carriage can follow the movements of the model in both directions of the horizontal plane at a speed up to 3.2 m/s. With an extra installed turntable, the system is able to perform captive manoeuvring tests in shallow and deep water. Therefore rotating arm tests are possible.
Waves, wind & current Wave generators are positioned at two adjacent sides of the basin and consist of hinged flaps. Each segment (width 40 cm) has its own driving motor, which is controlled separately. The wave generators are able to simulate various wave types, such as short crested wave patterns. The system is equipped with compensation of wave reflection from the model and the wave absorbers. Opposite this wave generator, passive wave absorbers are installed. For wind generation, a free moving and positionable platform of 24 m width, equipped with electrical fans is available. Current can be simulated with all kinds of profiles (hurricane, deep water current etc). Divided over the water depth of 10.5 m, six layers of culverts, each equipped with a pump, are installed.
Other capabilities The concrete movable floor has dimensions of 45 × 36 m and a height of 1.75 m. An optical tracking system is mounted on the sub carriage for the measurement of 6 D.O.F. model motions.
Model size range Models tested in the Offshore Basin vary from ship model (3 - 6 m) to floating structures of any kind. The size of floating structures is depending on water depth and wave conditions (usually between 0.2 m for buoys and 4 m for platforms).
Offshore structure models, fixed, moored or controlled by dynamic positioning in waves, wind and current
Captive or free sailing manoeuvring tests in shallow water
Deep water towing tank
The Deepwater Towing Tank (252 x 10.5 x 5.5 m) is used to optimize resistance and propulsion characteristics of ship designs. To provide insight in the possible improvements in performance the tank has the features to measure various wave and flow patterns. In addition to the standard resistance and propulsion tests the rudder or pod angle, pod position and propeller rotation direction can be optimised.
250 m × 10.5 m, 5.5 m deep
Manned, motor-driven, four drive wheels, four pairs of horizontal guide wheels
Maximum carriage speed
Drive system and total power
Thyrister controlled power supply, 4 × 45 kW
Vertical/horizontal PMM, wind-force dynamometer set-up
Dynamometers with strain gauge transducers in propelled hub, wind-force dynamometer, 6-component force balance dynamometer, 5-hole pitot tube, laser doppler velocity scanner, underwater photographic and video tape systems, pressure transducers, transducer for wave cut experiments
Model size range
1.5 - 13 m
Resistance and self-propulsion tests in calm water
Open water propelled/ducted propeller tests
3-D wake surveys
Flow observation tests by paint or tufts
Measurement of hydrodynamic forces and moments on submerged bodies, foils etc
Vertical/horizontal planar motion experiments
Longitudinal wave cut experiments
Current force measurements
Unsteady propeller blade force measurements
Depressurise Wave Basin
The Depressurised Wave Basin is a new research facility which was officially opened by Minister Verhagen in March 2012. MARIN was granted a €14m government subsidy for the construction of this unique test basin.
Leaflet Depressurised Wave Basin (PDF)
The Depressurised Wave Basin is a unique research facility for the testing of ships and offshore structures in most realistic (scaled) operational conditions. Due to the capability to reduce the ambient air pressure, it allows investigations in three important areas:
Cavitation (in waves)
Wave impacts with air entrapment
In more detail: Cavitation of the propeller(s) operating behind the complete ship model either in still water or waves or manoeuvring is possible. Cavitation and hull pressure tests are carried out in depressurised conditions, with the propeller(s) in Froude-scaled condition and the model in free surface conditions (free to trim and thus creating the proper propeller inflow). Seakeeping tests at scaled ambient pressure to model the correct behaviour of wave impacts and slamming using the wave makers along the short and long side of the basin. The same wave makers can also be used for testing offshore structures and wave energy devices. The facility can also be used as a multi-purpose model basin for hydrodynamic research related to the resistance and propulsion of ships and current loads and dynamics on offshore structures.
Technical data Tank dimensions are 240 x 18 x 8 m. The harbour (preparation) area is 26 m long and 4.2 m wide. The instrumentation allows for measuring up 100 channels at 20 kHz. The noise measurement system is able to test frequencies of 2 – 100 kHz.
Depressurisation According to the laws of similarity which apply to cavitation, the ambient air pressure in the tank must be reduced to the inverse of model scale. Through three vacuum pumps it can be lowered to a minimum of 2500 Pa.
Waves Wave generators are positioned at two adjacent sides of the basin and consist of hinged flaps. The wave generators are able to simulate various wave types, such as short-crested wave patterns. The system is equipped with compensation of wave reflection from the model and the wave absorbers. Opposite this wave generator, passive wave absorbers are installed. The short side wave maker has a capacity of 0.75 m waves at 4 s wave period and the long side wave maker 0.45 m waves, 3 s wave period.
Model size range Models range from 2 – 12 m in length, up to 4 m beam and a maximum draught of 1 m. Maximum propeller diameter is 0.4 m.
Observation Systems The observation systems (both inside and outside the model) offer much operational flexibility through the remote control of camera position, camera settings (zoom and focus), lighting and stroboscope positions and intensity. Normal and high speed cameras are available.
Cavitation observation and inception
Pressure fluctuation measurements
Radiated noise, flow noise measurements
Resistance and propulsion tests
Offshore structures, fixed, moored or controlled by dynamic positioning to determine motions and/or loads due to waves
Seakeeping tests in waves from arbitrary directions
Forced oscillation tests using an hexapod
Flooding tests (still water, waves, scaled ambient pressure)
VIM (Vortex Induced Motions)
The MARIN Concept Basin has a length of 220 m, a width of 4 m and a depth of 3.6 m. The basin is filled with fresh water. The basin is mainly designed to perform calm water and seakeeping model tests of ships and structures in the concept phase. Furthermore, the basin can be used for research purposes.
Carriage The basin has a stiff overhead carriage which runs over the full length of the basin. The maximum speed is 10 m/s.The carriage can be fitted with a large stroke vertical (VIV) oscillator to test vortex induced vibrations on pipes, risers and other slender constructions. Maximum Reynolds number up to 5E5.
Waves and wind A wave generator is fitted at the end of the basin. The wave generator consists of 8 hinged flaps. Each flap (with a width of 50 cm) has its own driving motor, which is controlled separately. The capacity of the wave generator is up to a significant wave height of 0.55 m at a peak period of 2.3 seconds. Regular wave capacity is 1.1 m at a peak period of 2.3 seconds. Opposite the wave generator, a passive sinkable wave absorber is installed. The wave generator is equipped with compensation of wave reflections form (ARC) the model and the wave absorbing beach. Wave generation is based on higher order wave synthesis techniques. Wind can be simulated by an adjustable platform spanning the full width of the basin fitted with electrical fans.
Resistance and self-propulsion tests in calm water and in waves
Seakeeping tests (in head and following waves, and other wave directions at zero speed)
Captive tests in calm water or waves (e.g. curent loads, manoeuvring coefficients)
Installation and sea transport tests of offshore structures
Tests on moored and fixed objects to determine motions and loads due to waves and winds
Wave energy tests (renewable energy devices)
VIV (vortex induced vibrations)
Drop tests for freefall life boats
Model size range
Model length of 1 – 4 m
Floating structures of any kind, size depending on water depth
Length for VIV oscillator 3.4 m
Shallow Water Basin
The depth of the Shallow Water Basin (220 x 15.75 m) is adjustable from 0 to 1.15 m. It is used to optimise the propulsion characteristics of ships as well as the (low speed) manoeuvring behaviour in shallow water. This including factors like proximity of quays and bank suction. The test can be used as input for simulations which help to optimise nautical strategies. The facility is also used for Concept Development and Design Support of new offshore designs in shallow water.
220 m × 15.8 m, 1.1 m deep
Maximum carriage speed
Type of drive system and total power
AC Thyristor power supply, 4 × 15 kW
Wave generator capability
Regular and irregular waves Wave period 0.5 - 5 s Wave direction 0 - 180 deg Wave height up to 0.25 m (significant)
Wave maker type and extent
Piston type, on short side
Adjustable in height, lattice type Portable electric resistance type wave probes
Generated by portable fans
Adjustable, maximum 1.15 m for calm water, 1.0 m for wave tests
MMS (measuring frequency up to 10,000 Hz) Number of channels: 40 (extendable) High speed film and video recording equipment available
Model size range
Particularly equipped for inland waterways push-boat and tow configurations. Overall length of 26 m and total beam of 5.5 m is the largest tested so far Manoeuvring tests (zig-zag, PMM), model length up to 8 m Floating structures and mooring arrangements depending on water depth and wave conditions
Model tracking techniques
Objects are tracked by optical system
Manoeuvring tests, zig-zag tests, stopping tests, PMM tests for determination of manoeuvring coefficients as input for the manoeuvring simulator
Resistance and self-propulsion tests especially for shallow water and/or narrow channels for ships and large push-tow fleets
Seakeeping tests with measurements of motions, wave loads and added resistance in waves for self-propelled ships
Behaviour of vessels in waves during beaching
Oscillation tests and tests in waves with a restrained model to determine hydrodynamic coefficients
Tests for moored and fixed objects to determine the motions, mooring forces and loads due to waves and wind